BIS 221T Week 2 Practice Editing a Report
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BIS 221T Week 2 Practice Editing a Report
This assignment has a total of 100 points.
Practice problems are designed to help you apply what you have learned. It may be a good idea to complete the assignment on your own without help to see where you might need the most practice. Make only those changes that are specified in these directions. The Atlas Grader depends on existing text to identify portions of the document for grading.
Add references and citations to the Preparedness Report
In this assignment you will practice adding footnotes, citations and captions to your report.
Task # Points Task Description
1 6 Edit the title page to include your name in place of the Document subtitle placeholder and insert the current date at the bottom of the page in the date placeholder. Make sure when you set the date that it uses a date format of MMMM DD, YYYY with the month spelled out.
2 2 To give the reader an easy way to reference the source material add a footnote to the opening line of Flood prepare section. To do this place your insertion point at the end of the “To prepare for a flood, you should:” statement. Use the Insert Footnote option on the References ribbon to open a footnote. Type: “http://www.ready.gov/floods” without the quotes in the footnote.
3 3 The footnote would be better as an endnote in this report. Switch the footnote to an endnote. To do this, place your insertion point on the footnote, right click and choose Convert to Endnote.
4 12 Add the endnotes in the table below to the identified statements. All of these statements are in the “Prepare for Natural Disasters” section.
Statement in Report Endnote Text
To prepare for an earthquake follow these guidelines: http://www.ready.gov/earthquakes
To begin preparing, you should: http://www.ready.gov/tornadoes
To prepare for a hurricane, you should take the following measures: http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes
To prepare for a winter snow storm you should do the following: http://www.ready.gov/winter-weather
5 6 Place the endnotes on a page by themselves at the end of the report with a Heading 1 title “Endnotes” above the endnotes. To do this, add a Next Page break above the endnotes at the end of the document, type the heading Endnotes and apply the Heading 1 style to the title.
6 5 Add a footnote with the text “The content of this report is based on information from the ready.gov web site.” at the end of the sentence which says: “Being prepared for a natural disaster can save lives and property” without the quote marks. This is the first sentence after the heading 1 “Prepare for Natural Disasters.”
7 10 Add the footnotes displayed in the table below to the Flood subsection of the Types of Natural Disasters section of the report.
Document Text Footnote Text
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry. Floods can be caused by a catastrophic dam failure.
Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins. Many dams in the US are at risk of failing due to age and earthquakes.
8 4 Create a citation reference at the end of the first paragraph in the “Tornados” subheading that is under the “Types of Natural Disasters” Section. To do this, place your insertion point after the sentence “Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.” Then open the Insert Citation dialog box, choose Add New Source. Change the Type of Source to Journal Article. Type the text into the appropriate text boxes. Here is the citation information:
Author: Perkins, Sid
Title: Tornado Alley, USA
Journal Name: Science News
9 6 Add two more citations in the text in the Types of Natural Disasters Section. Use the citations that have already been saved in the report. To add the first citation, move to the end of the last sentence of the last paragraph in the flood section at the end of the sentence the ends with “…are located within designated floodplains or near any body of water.” To add this citation, open the Insert Citations drop down and select the “The Prevalence and Cost of Urban Flooding” citation. Add the second citation at the end of the first paragraph in the Hurricane section at the end of the sentence that ends with “… among the lowest ever observed at sea level.” Insert the “Symonds, Steve” citation.
10 8 Create a bibliography from the citations that are displayed in the report. To do this, create a Next Page break after the Conclusion paragraph at the end of the document, choose the first option from the Bibliography drop down on the References ribbon.
11 15 Add figure captions to the five images in the document. Use the information in the table below as a reference. To insert a caption, select the image then select the Insert Caption option on the References ribbon, enter the text from the table below after the default Figure text in the dialog box. Do not add a period after the figure number. Be careful with spacing and case.
Section Heading Caption Text
Earthquake House Damaged by Earthquake
Flood Road Sign Flooded with Water
Tornado Tornado Moving Across a Field
Hurricane Aerial Image of a Hurricane
Snow House Covered in Snow
12 8 Create a Table of Figures with the default settings on a page by itself on the page with the heading “Table of Figures” in the Heading 1 style. The page should appear in the report on a page by itself right after the Conclusion. To do this, create a Next Page break after the Conclusion paragraph, enter the text “Table of Figures” and apply the Heading 1 style. To insert the table, place your insertion point on the line below the title, select Insert Table of Figures option and choose OK to accept the default settings for the Table of Figures.
13 15 Create cross references in subsections of the “Types of Natural Disasters” section. These cross references should point to the heading of the corresponding subsection in the “Prepare for Natural Disasters” section. To make a cross reference, first select the word in the “Types…” subsection, such as “flood”. Next click on the Cross-reference icon in the References ribbon. In the dialog box for Reference Type select Headings. Then choose the corresponding heading under the “Prepare for Natural Disasters” list, such as Flood. Notice the originally selected word is replaced by the heading reference. After you make the cross reference, underline the word in the “Types….” section so that it stands out as a cross-reference. Do this for all types of disasters.
14 0 Save your document. Submit your work.
QuickStove’s Emergency Cube Stove and Emergency Cook Kit are two options for being prepared for an emergency. The company that wants everyone to be prepared for any emergency. Having a plan before an emergency gives people a better chance of survival. This report will provide a short overview of the types of natural disaster emergencies that can occur in the United States.
Earthquakes, flood, tornados, hurricanes and winter snow are just a few of the types of disasters Americans can face. Knowing what to do before, during and after is a critical part of being prepared.
This report is based on information from the www.ready.gov web site and en.wikipedia.org.
A disasteris defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society. The disaster can involve widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts. The disaster may exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Emergency preparedness is not only for people living in California, or the Midwest or the Gulf Coast. Other communities may be impacted by several types of hazards during a lifetime. Americans also travel more than ever before to areas with different hazard risks than they have at home.
Large natural disasters in the United States make the news and may impact thousands of people. The table below show the large disasters in the years 2010 – 2015.
Year Type Location
2015 Wild fire Okanogan County, Washington
2015 Flood Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma
2014 Snow storm Buffalo, New York, Great Lakes region
2014 Tornado Nebraska, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Illinois, Florida, North Carolina
2014 Mudflow Oso, Washington
2013-2014 Cold wave Eastern US
2013 Wildfire Yarnell, Arizona
2013 Tornado Moore, Oklahoma
2013 Blizzard Eastern US
2012 Hurricane Eastern US
2011 Tornado Joplin, Missouri
2011 Tornado Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, Arkansas and Virginia
2011 Flood Mississippi River Valley
2010 Flood Albert Pike Recreational Area (near Langley, Arkansas)
Types of Natural Disasters
Earthquakes also known as a quake, tremor or temblor result from the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can be violent enough to destroy major buildings and kill thousands of people. The severity of the shaking can range from barely felt to violent enough to toss people around. In its most general sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event, whether natural or caused by humans that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. An earthquake’s point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.
At the Earth’s surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river or lake, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground.
Floods can occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers. While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is usually flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry.
Some floods develop slowly, while others such as flash floods, can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins.
Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built environment, particularly in more densely populated areas, caused by rainfall overwhelming the capacity of drainage systems, such as storm sewers. Although sometimes triggered by events such as flash flooding or snowmelt, urban flooding is a condition, characterized by its repetitive and systemic impacts on communities that can happen regardless of whether or not affected communities are located within designated floodplains or near any body of water.
A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.
Tornadoes have been observed on every continent except Antarctica. However, the vast majority of tornadoes occur in the Tornado Alley region of the United States, although they can occur nearly anywhere in North America. They also occasionally occur in south-central and eastern Asia, northern and east-central South America, Southern Africa, northwestern and southeast Europe, western and southeastern Australia, and New Zealand.
Tropical cyclones or Hurricanes are areas of relatively low pressure in the troposphere, with the largest pressure perturbations occurring at low altitudes near the surface. On Earth, the pressures recorded at the center of tropical cyclones are among the lowest ever observed at sea level.
Hurricanes typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which ultimately re-condenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation. The strong rotating winds of a hurricane are a result of the conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth’s rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation.
In addition to strong winds and rain, hurricanes are capable of generating high waves, damaging storm surge, and tornadoes. They typically weaken rapidly over land where they are cut off from their primary energy source.
Snow is precipitation in the form of flakes of crystalline water ice that falls from clouds. Snow is composed of small ice particles making it a granular material. Snow has an open and therefore soft, white, and fluffy structure, unless subjected to external pressure. Snowflakes come in a variety of sizes and shapes. Types that fall in the form of a ball due to melting and refreezing, rather than a flake, are hail, ice pellets or snow grains.
Storms passing over warm water bodies can produce lake-effect snowfall downwind of the lake. Lake-effect snowfall can be heavy locally. Snowfall amount and its related liquid equivalent precipitation amount are measured using a variety of different rain gauges.
Prepare for Natural Disasters
Being prepared for a natural disaster can save lives and property. Depending on your circumstances and the nature of the emergency, the first important decision is whether you stay where you are or evacuate. You should understand and plan for both possibilities.
Local authorities may or may not immediately be able to provide information on what is happening. If possible you should watch TV, listen to the radio or check the Internet often for information or official instructions as they become available.
To prepare for an earthquake follow these guidelines:
Look around places where you spend time. Identify safe places such as under a sturdy piece of furniture or against an interior wall in your home, office or school so that when the shaking starts, you drop to the ground, cover your head and neck with your arms, and if a safer place is nearby, crawl to it and hold on.
To react quickly you must practice often how to “Drop, Cover, and Hold On!”. You may only have seconds to protect yourself in an earthquake.
Before an earthquake occurs, secure items that could fall and cause injuries (e.g., bookshelves, mirrors, light fixtures).
Store critical supplies (e.g., water, medication) and documents.
Plan how you will communicate with family members, including multiple methods by making a family emergency communication plan.
When choosing your home or business, check if the building is earthquake resistant per local building codes.
To prepare for a flood, you should:
Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.
Avoid building in a floodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your home.
Elevate the furnace, water heater and electric panel in your home if you live in an area that has a high flood risk.
Consider installing “check valves” to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of your home.
If feasible, construct barriers to stop floodwater from entering the building and seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds.
To begin preparing, you should:
Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.
Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or to commercial radio or television newscasts for the latest information. In any emergency, always listen to the instructions given by local emergency management officials.
Be alert to changing weather conditions. Look for approaching storms.
Look for the following danger signs:
Dark, often greenish sky
A large, dark, low-lying cloud (particularly if rotating)
Loud roar, similar to a freight train.
If you see approaching storms or any of the danger signs, be prepared to take shelter immediately.
To prepare for a hurricane, you should take the following measures:
Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.
Know your surroundings.
Learn the elevation level of your property and whether the land is flood-prone. This will help you know how your property will be affected when storm surge or tidal flooding are forecasted.
Identify levees and dams in your area and determine whether they pose a hazard to you.
Learn community hurricane evacuation routes and how to find higher ground. Determine where you would go and how you would get there if you needed to evacuate.
Make plans to secure your property:
Cover all of your home’s windows. Permanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows. A second option is to board up windows with 5/8” exterior grade or marine plywood, cut to fit and ready to install. Another year-round option would be installation of laminated glass with impact-resistant glazing. Tape does not prevent windows from breaking.
Install straps or additional clips to securely fasten your roof to the frame structure. This will reduce roof damage.
Be sure trees and shrubs around your home are well trimmed so they are more wind resistant.
Clear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts.
Reinforce your garage doors; if wind enters a garage it can cause dangerous and expensive structural damage.
Plan to bring in all outdoor furniture, decorations, garbage cans and anything else that is not tied down.
Determine how and where to secure your boat.
Install a generator for emergencies.
If in a high-rise building, when high winds are present, be prepared to take shelter on a lower floor because wind conditions increase with height, and in a small interior room without windows. When flooding may be occurring, be prepared to take shelter on a floor safely above the flooding and wave effects.
Consider building a safe room.
To prepare for a winter snow storm you should do the following:
Before winter approaches, add the following supplies to your emergency kit:
Rock salt or more environmentally safe products to melt ice on walkways. Visit the Environmental Protection Agency for a complete list of recommended products.
Sand to improve traction.
Snow shovels and other snow removal equipment.
Sufficient heating fuel. You may become isolated in your home and regular fuel sources may be cut off. Store a good supply of dry, seasoned wood for your fireplace or wood-burning stove.
Adequate clothing and blankets to keep you warm.
Make a Family Communications Plan. Your family may not be together when disaster strikes, so it is important to know how you will contact one another, how you will get back together and what you will do in case of an emergency.
A NOAA Weather Radio broadcasts alerts and warnings directly from the NWS for all hazards. You may also sign up in advance to receive notifications from your local emergency services.
Download FEMA’s Be Smart. Know Your Alerts and Warnings for a summary of notifications at: www.ready.gov/prepare. Free smart phone apps, such as those available from FEMA and the American Red Cross, provide information about finding shelters, providing first aid, and seeking assistance for recovery.
Minimize travel. If travel is necessary, keep a disaster supplies kit in your vehicle.
Bring pets/companion animals inside during winter weather. Move other animals or livestock to sheltered areas with non-frozen drinking water.
This report is a quick guide to the types of natural disasters that can occur in the United Statesand how to prepare for them. Being prepared for the disaster is important to save lives and property. Quickstove’s Emergency Cube Stove can be a valuable part of any emergency preparedness kit. When making your emergency plan consider how you may have to live for a period of time after the emergency passes. Being able to heat food and water are essential to getting life back to normal.
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